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LX0-101 Questions & Answers

LX0-101 Questions and Answers

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Exam Code: LX0-101

Exam Name: CompTIA Linux+ [Powered by LPI] Exam 1

Vendor: CompTIA

Certs Covered: CompTIA Linux+

No of Questions: 119

Last Updated: October 16, 2014

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Monitoring IPv6 Networks


Using show, debug and clear Commands to Troubleshoot and Monitor an IPv6 Network

There are a number of show commands which you can use to verify your IPv6 addressing configuration and IPv6 operation:

  • access-list – Summary of access lists

  • interface – IPv6 interface status and configuration

  • mtu – MTU per destination cache

  • neighbors – Show IPv6 neighbor cache entries

  • prefix-list – List IPv6 prefix lists

  • protocols – IPv6 Routing Protocols

  • rip – RIP routing protocol status

  • route – Show IPv6 route table entries

  • routers – Show local IPv6 routers

  • traffic – IPv6 protocol statistics

  • tunnel – Summary of IPv6 tunnels


You can use the following IPv6 specific clear commands:

  • neighbors – Clear IPv6 ND Entry Cache

  • prefix-list – Prefix-list

  • route – Clear IPv6 route table entries

  • traffic – Clear traffic counters


You can use the following IPv6 specific debug commands:

  • icmp – ICMPv6 debugging

  • nd – IPv6 Neighbor Discovery debugging

  • packet – IPv6 packet debugging

  • rip – RIP Routing Protocol debugging

  • routing – IPv6 routing table debugging


The remainder of this Article explores a few of these commands in greater detail.



Using the show ipv6 interface command

One of the commonly used show commands for determining the current status of the interface configured for IPv6 is the following command:

  • show ipv6 interface command


The full command syntax is:

  • show ipv6 interface [brief] [interface-type interface-number]


You can execute the show ipv6 interface command from either of these modes:

  • Privileged EXEC mode

  • User EXEC mode


The show ipv6 interface command’s output includes information on:

  • The status of the interface

  • Indicates whether IPv6 is enabled.

  • Shows the status of the IPv6 on the interface

  • Lists the local address assigned.

  • Lists Global unicast addresses

  • Lists the multicast groups that the interface belongs to.

  • Lists the frequency of ICMP messages

  • Shows whether ICMP redirects are enabled

  • Shows whether the duplicate address detection feature is enabled, and the number of DAD attempts, if enabled.

  • Shows the status of neighbor discovery.


One of the main advantages of using the command when you start to troubleshoot issues is that it can assist you in determining where the problem exists:

  • At the Layer 2 area of the IPv6 connection

  • At the Layer 3 area of the IPv6 connection


When assessing interfaces with regard to IPv6 connectivity, you should first determine the status of the interface.


An interface can be in either of the following states:

  • Up/up: In the up/up state, the interface is communicating with the interface hardware. IPv6 communication (Layer 3) is also communicating with the same Layer 3 protocol at the other end of the link.

  • Up/down – line protocol down: In the up/down state, the interface is not communicating with the neighbor over the Layer 3 protocol, which is IPv6. The up/down state is usually due to either of the following reasons:

  • Incorrect IP address configuration on the local device or remote device.

  • Incorrect subnet mask configuration on the local device or remote device.

  • Keepalive issue

  • Failed local CSU/DSU.

  • Failed remote CSU/DSU.

  • Equipment timing issue

  • Down/down – interface down: An interface in the down/down state means that you possibly have a local hardware or cabling issue.



Using the show ipv6 interface brief command

If you want to view a summary on the status of each interface configured for IPv6 on the router, then you should use the following command:

  • show ipv6 interface brief command


The show ipv6 interface brief command’s output includes information on:

  • Lists the interface name

  • Shows the status of the interface

  • Lists the IP address assigned for the interface



Using the show ipv6 route command

If you want to view the routing table or you want to view the next hop for the connected network, then you should use the following command:

  • show ipv6 route command


The show ipv6 route command is useful when you need to troubleshoot a communication issue with an end destination.


The full command syntax is:

  • show ipv6 route [ipv6-address | ipv6-prefix/prefix-length | protocol]


You can execute the show ipv6 route command from either of these modes:

  • Privileged EXEC mode

  • User EXEC mode


The show ipv6 route command’s output includes information on:

  • IPv6 routes learned by the router.

  • Protocol by which the IPv6 routes were learned.

  • Prefix of the remote network

  • Administrative distance for the link

  • Metric distance for the link

  • Interface for forwarding packets.

  • When the route was last updated.

  • When the route expires.


You can use the following command together with the show ipv6 route command to solve these types of issues:

  • ping ipv6 command: Use the ping ipv6 [destination address] command first, to determine whether the end destination device can indeed be accessed.

  • traceroute ipv6 command: Use the traceroute ipv6 command after the ping ipv6 command, to isolate which path to the end destination device is causing the issue.



Using the show ipv6 summary command

If you want to view a summary on routes for each route source and each prefix length, then use the following command:

  • show ipv6 route summary command


The show ipv6 route summary command’s output includes information on:

  • Lists the total number of entries in the IPv6 routing table.

  • Lists the total number of locally derived networks

  • Lists the total number of directly derived networks

  • Lists the total number of statically mapped networks

  • Lists the total number of dynamically derived networks

  • Provides a summary of the total number of IPv6 routing table entries for a specific prefix length.



Using the show ipv6 protocols command

If you need to determine which IPv6 protocols are configured on the router and view information on these protocols, you should use the following command:

  • show ipv6 protocols command


The show ipv6 protocols command’s output includes information on:

  • Routing protocols running on the router.

  • Interfaces being used by the routing protocols.

  • Information on each routing protocol configured on each specific interface of the router.

  • Route redistribution information.

  • Shows whether neighbor route maps have been applied to each interface of the router.

  • Shows whether AS-filter lists have been applied to each interface of the router. If applied, the neighbor weight value is also shown.

  • For interfaces that have the BGP routing protocol enabled, additional columns are displayed in the output:

  • FiltIn

  • FiltOut

  • Weight


If you want to view summary information on routing protocols running on the interface, you can use the following command

  • show ipv6 protocols summary command



Using the show ipv6 neighbors command

If you want to view the contents of the Neighbor Discovery cache, then you should use the following command:

  • show ipv6 neighbors command


The show ipv6 neighbors command can assist you in determining information on the following aspects of neighbors:

  • Whether a neighbor cannot be accessed

  • When a neighbor was last communicated with

  • To troubleshoot connectivity issues between neighbors


The information contained within the Neighbor Discovery cache is built from exchanging the following types of ICMP messages:

  • Router Solicitation messages

  • Router Advertisement messages

  • Neighbor Solicitation messages

  • Neighbor Advertisement messages

  • Redirect ICMP messages


The full command syntax to execute the command is:

  • show ipv6 neighbors [interface-type interface-number | ipv6-address]

You can execute the show ipv6 neighbors command from either of these modes:

  • Privileged EXEC mode

  • User EXEC mode


The show ipv6 neighbors command’s output includes information on:

  • IPv6 address of a neighboring device

  • Link-layer address of the neighbor

  • Information on when the neighbor was last contacted.

  • State of the neighbor cache entry

  • State of the interface through which the neighbor can be reached.


The different neighbor cache entry states are explained below:

  • INCMP – Incomplete state: Specifies that Neighbor resolution is not finalized. While the Neighbor Solicitation ICMP message was transmitted, the Neighbor Advertisement message has not been received.

  • REACH – Reachable state: Specifies that the neighbor was reached within the predefined ReachableTime time frame.

  • STALE state: Specifies that the neighbor has not been reached within the predefined ReachableTime time frame.

  • DELAY state: This neighbor state comes after the STALE neighbor state. The DELAY state specifies that the packet was sent within the DELAY_FIRST_PROBE_TIME setting.

  • PROBE state: The PROBE state follows the DELAY state. In this state, Neighbor Solicitation messages are sent until reachability is confirmed with the neighbor. The interval at which the Neighbor Solicitation messages are sent is determined by the RetransTimer value.

  • ???? state: Specifies an unknown state.



Using the show ipv6 traffic command

If you want to determine whether there are any errors with the IPv6 packet, use the command listed below.

  • show ipv6 traffic command


This command displays information on the following types of packets sent by or received by a router configured for IPv6:

  • IPv6 packets

  • UDP packets

  • ICMP packets


The general IPv6 statistics included in the output of the show ipv6 traffic command provides information on:

  • Format errors

  • Hop count exceeded count

  • Bad header count

  • Unknown protocol information

  • Reassembly timeouts

  • Reassembly failures

  • Encapsulation failed, and more


The ICMP statistics included in the output of the show ipv6 traffic command provides information on:

  • Checksum errors

  • Unknown info type

  • Unknown error type

  • Echo request

  • Echo reply

  • Router advertisements

  • Router solicits

  • Neighbor advertisements

  • Neighbor solicits, and more



Using the show ipv6 rip command

If you want to view information on only RIP routing configured for IPv6, you should use the following command:

  • show ipv6 rip command


The show ipv6 rip command can be used to check your RIP operation. The command provides the following output information, specific to the RIP routing protocol:

  • Timer information

  • Port information

  • Update frequency information

  • Update types

  • Default route information



Using the show bgp ipv6 command

If you want to view the BGP routing protocol configuration on the router, and determine the state of BGP routing, then use the command listed next. This command displays information on only BGP routing processes and configuration.

  • show bgp ipv6 command


The full command syntax is:

  • show bgp ipv6 [ipv6-prefix/prefix-length] [longer-prefixes]


The show bgp ipv6 command’s output includes information on:

  • The BGP table version

  • Next hop address to reach the specified network. The metric is also shown.

  • Weight

  • Autonomous System (AS) path

  • When configured, local preference is shown as well.



Using the show bgp ipv6 summary command

If you want to view a summary on BGP configuration running on the interface, you can use the following command

  • show bgp ipv6 summary command


The show bgp ipv6 summary command’s output includes information on:

  • BGP table version

  • Router memory used for each BGP entry

  • Local identifier

  • Neighbor address

  • BGP version number communicated to the listed neighbor

  • Autonomous System (AS) number

  • Length of time for which the BGP session was established/not established.

  • Number of BGP messages sent by the neighbor

  • Number of BGP messages received from the neighbor

  • Number of BGP messages waiting to be processed by the router.



Using the show bgp ipv6 neighbors command

If you want to view information on BGP neighbor communication, verify BGP connectivity, or troubleshoot routing problems you should use the command listed below:

  • show bgp ipv6 neighbors command


The full command syntax is:

  • show bgp ipv6 neighbors [ipv6-address] [received-routes | routes |flap-statistics | advertised-routes | paths regular-expression |dampened-routes]


The show bgp ipv6 neighbors command lists information on each and every IPv6 BGP neighbor. If you want to display information on a specific IPv6 BGP neighbor, you have to specify the address of that particular IPv6 BGP neighbor.


The show bgp ipv6 neighbors command’s output includes information on:

  • BGP neighbor

  • The update policy peer group to which this router belongs

  • Current state of the BGP session

  • Time duration for which the underlying TCP connection has been established.

  • BGP capabilities advertised and received from this specific neighbor

  • IPv6 unicast-specific properties of the neighbor.

  • Number of times for which the peers have agreed to speak BGP.

  • Number of times that a good connection has failed or was taken down.

  • The peering address of the local router

  • The number of enqueued packets for retransmit

  • The event timers’ statistics.



Using the ping command

The ping command uses a single argument. This is the hostname or address of the remote machine. When you leave out the hostname on the command line, the router will prompt you for this information. You can also be prompted for any other information that the router needs.


You can define the following information with the ping command:

  • Hostname of the remote machine

  • Address of the remote machine

  • Number of packets to send to the remote machine.

  • Quantity of data that can be included within the packet. The actual size of the packet is specified in bytes.

  • Number of seconds to wait for a response from the remote machine. After the predefined number of seconds expires, the router assumes that the ping request has been unsuccessful.


The output of the ping command shows a variety of statistics on the response that was received from the remote machine.



Using the debug ipv6 packet command

A frequently used command for troubleshooting and debugging IPv6 configuration and IPv6 operation is the:

  • debug ipv6 packet command


Remember though that running debug commands results in the generation of considerable router overhead. You should therefore only run the command when traffic volumes are low.


The debug ipv6 packet command’s output includes information on:

  • IPv6 packets generated on the router

  • IPv6 packets received on the router

  • IPv6 packets forwarded on the router

  • Source address information in the IPv6 header

  • Destination address information in the IPv6 header

  • Value of the traffic class field.

  • Indicates whether the packet was forwarded to the upper-layer protocol.

  • Indicates whether the packet originated from this router.



Using the debug ipv6 routing command

To obtain debug information for updates to the IPv6 routing table and route cache, use the following command:

  • debug ipv6 routing command


The debug ipv6 routing command’s output includes information on:

  • Route entries added to the routing table.

  • For Route entries already in the routing table, specifies whether a lower cost path was added for that route.



Using the debug ipv6 icmp command

The debug command used for troubleshooting IPv6 ICMP configuration and communication is listed below:

  • debug ipv6 icmp command


Remember that all the following processes use IPv6 ICMP communication:

  • The neighbor discovery process.

  • Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD)

  • MTU determination


The debug ipv6 icmp command’s output includes information on:

  • Whether the ICMPv6 packet has been sent.

  • Whether the ICMPv6 packet has been received.



Using the debug ipv6 nd command

The command for troubleshooting IPv6 neighbor discovery configuration and communication through ICMP packets is the:

  • debug ipv6 nd command


The debug ipv6 icmp command’s output includes information on:

  • Whether Neighbor Solicitation (NS) and Neighbor Advertisement (NA) messages are being communicated.

  • Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) information.



Using the debug bgp ipv6 command

If you are troubleshooting BGP and you need to debug IPv6 BGP, you should use the following command:

  • debug bgp ipv6 command


The full command syntax:

  • debug bgp ipv6 {dampening [neighbor-acl] | updates [neighbor-address |neighbor-acl | in | out]}




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